The mechanism of low induction of Striga seed germination by Umgar could be further investigated. View all Effects of S. hermonthica seed density on rice total above-ground parts DW in the third open-air pot experiment in 2013. The seeds sown on moist filter paper in Petri dishes were incubated in the dark at 30°C for 3–4 days for rice and 2 days for sorghum. However, recent research associated differential pre-attachment resistance to S. asiatica in wild sorghum with variability in haustorium-inducing activity (Rich et al., 2004; Bandaranayake and Yoder, 2013). Developmental arrest of the parasite at stage II (successful attachment but no shoot elongation) contributed to the high post-attachment resistance in NERICA13, NERICA5, and Umgar. In addition to differences in Striga populations, growth conditions such as Striga seed bank size, soil moisture, fertility, and temperature may influence apparent resistance in rice varieties (Kim, 1996). Striga had no significant adverse effects (p > 0.10) on the total above-ground parts and panicle DW in Umgar, NERICA5, and NERICA13 (Table 1). Cissoko et al. Effects of deep-flooding irrigation on growth, canopy structure and panicle weight yield under different planting patterns in rice. (2006). The bioconversion of 5-deoxystrigol to sorgomol by the Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Gurney, A. L., Slate, J., Press, M. C., and Scholes, J. D. (2006). In the pot experiments Umgar and NERICA5, consistently, sustained the lowest Striga emergence (<2.2 Striga plants per pot), while NERICA13 and NERICA4 supported 1.8–5.7 and 8.7–16.4 Striga plants per pot, respectively. Striga resistance in the wild relatives of Sorghum. Int. Ali, R. A., El-Hussein, A. After heading, plants were irrigated daily. Umgar is an upland variety released in Sudan for commercial production (Nyachae, 2011). Rice was harvested by cutting the above-ground parts at ground level for the second and third experiments and no rice sampling was conducted in the first experiment. progenies in upland rice improvement. Upland Rice. Plant Prod. It is also an intergovernmental association of African member countries. Variation for host range within and among populations of the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica. A full-length enriched cDNA library and expressed sequence tag analysis of the parasitic weed, Striga hermonthica. These varieties promoted rice cultivation in the region and are partly responsible for the recent expansion of rice into rain-fed areas (Rodenburg et al., 2006; Balasubramanian et al., 2007; Wopereis et al., 2008). “NERICA: origins, nomenclature and identification characteristics,” in NERICA: The New Rice for Africa—A Compendium, eds E. A. Somado, R. G. Guei, and S. O. Keya (Cotonou: Africa Rice Center (WARDA)), 10–30. Three rice varieties Kosti1, Kosti2, and Umgar were used for the first experiment. Regul. Its multiple resistance phenotypes to Striga would confer a wider ecological amplitude. The results of the current study, invariably, indicate the resistance of NERICA5 to another population of S. hermonthica. NERICA – Tailor-made Innovation for Africa’s Rainfed Rice Ecology. (Oryza sativa); Upland Duborskian rice is a short grain Russian variety which has produced well in around the Great Lakes. Achievements and impact of NERICA on sustainable rice production in sub-Saharan Africa. NERICA18 was selected as a susceptible variety and NERICA4 was selected as it is widely used in several sub-Saharan African countries (Somado et al., 2008; Wopereis et al., 2008). |, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Appl. Breed. Germination inducing activity of root exudates from Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, Nipponbare, NERICA4, and NERICA18 grown in a growth chamber. Several NERICA varieties were introduced to Sudan and evaluated for growth and yield, but not for resistance to Striga, in the country (Somado and Guei, 2008). Other than NERICA1 and CG14, there were 10 varieties, including NERICA13, NERICA5, and Umgar, in which more than 60% of the inoculated parasites showed arrested development at stage II (successful attachment but no shoot elongation). Aerobic rice, upland rice, water stress, traditional varieties, yield potential, harvest index. In the first pot experiments, Kosti1 supported 0, 0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.0, and 3.7 emergent Striga plants per pot at seed bank size of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mg Striga (Figure 4). Effects of Striga hermonthica on rice total above-ground parts and panicle DW in the second open-air pot experiment in 2012. The first experiment was conducted to evaluate post-attachment resistance of 27 rice varieties. doi: 10.5367/000000008785915502, Yoder, J. I., and Scholes, J. D. (2010). The NERICAs are being used by farmers for rice production and by breeders in varietal improvement programs in Bangladesh, China, India and several other countries around the world. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. This study was supported by a JST/JICA SATREPS (Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo Japan and International Cooperation Agency, Tokyo, Japan) and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 23790015 and 26450019 (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan). doi: 10.1614/WS-07-136.1, Huang, K., Whitlock, R., Press, M. C., and Scholes, J. C. (2012). “Haustorial development in Striga asiatica,” in Witchweed Research and Control in the United States, eds P. F. Sand, R. E. Eplee, and R. G. Westbrroks (Champaign IL: Weed Science Society of America), 27–36. Expanding upland rice production without due attention to the Striga problem is fraught with an element of risk. Furthermore, host plants with post-attachment resistance prevent parasite development. A similar resistance phenotype, namely successful attachment but no shoot elongation, has been reported in other rice varieties including Nipponbare, Koshihikari, CG14, NERICA1, and NERICA10 (Gurney et al., 2006; Swarbrick et al., 2008; Yoshida and Shirasu, 2009; Cissoko et al., 2011). 1, 229–249. 169, 199–208. Plants were grown hydroponically in 40% Long Ashton solution in a growth chamber at 30°C with a 12-h photoperiod using fluorescent lights (photosynthetic active radiation of 220 μmol m-2 s-1) throughout growth duration after the transplanting except during root exudates samplings. Umgar supported no emergent Striga plants at seed bank size of 0–8 mg. Sudanese Seed Sector. The root exudate was sampled at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 DAS. Host plant resistance to parasitic weeds; recent progress and bottlenecks. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2009.10.015. doi: 10.1080/15226510701374831. Growth progression of Striga was classified into four developmental stages: stage I, failure to attach to the root due to lack of haustorium formation (Figure 1a); stage II, successful attachment but no shoot elongation (Figures 1b–d); stage III, shoot necrosis after reaching the four or more leaf pairs stage (Figures 1e,f); stage IV, successful parasitism with healthy shoots (Figures 1g,h). Pooled across sampling dates, there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference among rice varieties. The results of the rhizotron evaluation indicated that resistance to S. hermonthica is an outcome of several restrictions that block the parasite ingress and development. Three pot experiments were carried out in the open air at the Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum North (15°39′N lat, 32°31′E long) to compare resistance and performance of selected rice varieties under the same Striga seed bank size. However, significant reductions (p < 0.01 or 0.05) in total above-ground parts and panicle DW were observed in NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare (Table 1). The potted experiment was carried out in the screen house of the Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Federal University Oye-Ekiti, Ikole campus in 2015 to screen and evaluate the performance of upland rice varieties in inundated soils with a view to selecting the suitable variety or varieties that will fit into the existing niche in the inland valley. Original (A), 10-time concetrated (B), 25-time concentrated (C) and 50-time concetrated (D) root exudates were used in the germintion test. The rice above-ground parts were severed into panicles and vegetative parts, oven dried at 80°C for 3 days, and weighed. Emergence of the parasite in the Striga-infested pots showed dependence on time and rice variety (Figure 5). 179, 515–529. E: AfricaRice@cgiar.org, For Staff Only / Pour le personnel seulement NERICA4 and Umgar were harvested at 111 and 121 DAS, respectively. The first NERICA varieties were released in Côte d’Ivoire in 2000. The breeding program was initiated from crossing specific African rice varieties, known for their resistance to rainfed lowland stresses, with popular—but susceptible—Asian rice varieties. A., Mohamed, K. I., and Babiker, A. G. T. (2009). The seedlings were transplanted each, to a 50-mL plastic tube wrapped in aluminum foil to exclude light. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2006.00507.x, Wopereis, M. C. S., Diagne, A., Rodenburg, J., Sié, M., and Somado, E. A. (b) A seedling that attached to the root but showed no shoot emergence at 21 DAI, or no shoot elongation from (c) 14 DAI to (d) 21 DAI. doi: 10.1007/s00122-008-0833-0, Mohamed, A., Ellicott, A., Housley, T. L., and Ejeta, G. (2003). The interspecific lines were evaluated across Africa by farmers through participatory varietal selection (PVS), which is an innovative approach that allows farmers to select their preferred varieties that match their needs and growing conditions, and that generates valuable feedback on farmers’ preference criteria for rice breeders. Box 2404, Khartoum, Sudan, Front. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.02.017. Theor. Adv. Panicle DW was used as an index for grain yield as described in studies of responses of sorghum varieties to S. hermonthica (Lendzemo and Kuyper, 2001; Van Ast and Bastiaans, 2006) and for rice in several studies (Kato et al., 2007; Ohe et al., 2010; Uga et al., 2011; Niones et al., 2012). Eighteen upland NERICA varieties and their parents, CG14, WAB56-50, WAB56-104, and WAB181-18, were supplied by the Africa Rice Center, Benin. Balasubramanian, V., Sie, M., Hijmans, R. J., and Otsuka, K. (2007). Multiple layers of incompatibility to the parasitic witchweed, Striga hermonthica. The technologies considered were improved upland rice varieties and terraces. 183, 180–189. (2011). J. Each tiller will bear a rice panicle, and you can get up to 100 grains of rice per panicle. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01560.x, Hiraoka, Y., and Sugimoto, Y. Rich, P. J., Grenier, C., and Ejeta, G. (2004). The results from rhizotron, pot and semi-controlled open air evaluations and germination test were at variance for Nipponbare. Environ. An impact study has shown that about 8 million people were lifted out of poverty and food insecurity thanks to the adoption of improved rice varieties, including NERICA. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03846.x, Ejeta, G. (2007). (2015) using a set of 25 rice varieties reported consistency between field and laboratory data on resistance to S. hermonthica and S. asiatica. Yields of traditional rice varieties for this ecology are low, usually less than 1.5 tonnes per ha or around 40% of the world average. Increasing rice production in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and opportunities. From 1984 to 2013 the area dedicated to rice cultivation increased by 124%, corresponding to a 215% increase in production (FAO, 2015). AfricaRice is a CGIAR Research Center – part of a global research partnership for a food-secure future. TABLE 2. Proportions of Striga seedling showing arrested development at this stage were less than 30, 30–40, 40–50, 50–60, and more than 60% in 3, 1, 3, 8, and 12 varieties, respectively. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03850.x, Jones, M. P., Dingkuhn, M., Aluko, G. K., and Semon, M. (1997a). NERICA lines have been tested in 31 SSA countries using the PVS approach. The differential performance of these varieties may be attributed to the relatively high germination inducing activity of root exudates of NERICA13 compared to the other varieties. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Produces sturdy plants upright plants that grow about two feet tall. Several hundred interspecific progenies with promising agronomic performance were generated, increasing the biodiversity of rice. The difference between Nipponbare and NERICA18 was also significant (p < 0.10). The Striga treatment was the main plot. For rice in northern areas, it's the wild rice (Zizania palustris) tucked along remote lakeshores and stream beds that captures our attention. Rice seeds were sown in holes (five per hole) with a spacing of 25 cm × 25 cm. S. hermonthica seeds were collected from a sorghum field near Wad Madani, Sudan, where upland rice cultivation is being conducted (Mustafa and Elsheikh, 2007). The corresponding numbers of emergent Striga plants were 11.7, 16.4, and 8.7 for NERICA4, 7.4, 5.7, and 3.8 for Kosti1 and 5.7, 15.3, and 10.0 for Kosti2, respectively. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. 30, 843–879. It is considered an upland rice and does not require flooding. Development of the rainfed lowland NERICAs was led by AfricaRice scientist Dr Moussa Sié. Available at: http://www.r-project.org/ [accessed April 30, 2015]. doi: 10.1016/S0167-8809(00)00293-0, López-Ráez, J. In the pot and semi-controlled open air experiments, the number of emergent Striga plants and DW of rice varieties were analyzed by Student’s t-test or Tukey’s HSD test. Original root exudates of sorghum induced more than 80% germination. Plant Physiol. Genet. FIGURE 1. However, the final parasite emergence reached 0, 0.5, 2.5, 4.7, 6.7, and 13.0 plants per pot for Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, Nipponbare, NERICA4, and NERICA18, respectively. Furthermore, development of a virulent population over time from a subset of Striga individuals within a seed bank may lead to beakdown of resistance (Huang et al., 2012; Rodenburg et al., 2015). Int. 65, 528–532. Upland rice varieties which combine resistance to resident Striga populations and adaptability to Sudanese rice upland growing environments is therefore urgently needed. Yield physiology of rice. The NERICA varieties for various rice ecologies are a significant international public good. Pest Manag. The poor growth and early flowering could be attributed, among other factors, to photoperiodic sensitivity (Matsubara et al., 2008). They are early-maturing (75-100 days) and are relatively tolerant of major stresses of Africa’s harsh growth environment. The lower germination inducing activity of root exudates from Umgar showed pre-attachment resistance. ARC, Agricultural Research Corporation; DAI, days after inoculation; DAS, days after sowing; DW, dry weight; GDD, growing degree days. New Phytol. The original root exudates from the rice varieties induced negligible to little (0.1–16.3%) germination (Figure 8A). Strigolactones: ecological significance and use as a target for parasitic plant control. The results in the second rhizotron evaluation with a subset of the varieties (Figure 3) were similar to those in the first rhizotron evaluation (Figure 2). Upland NERICA . NERICA (short for New Rice for Africa) varieties include a group of 18 upland rice varieties developed by CGIAR Consortium member, the Africa Rice Center (Africa Rice) and national partners. 192, 952–963. Crop Sci. Farmers appreciate CD for its relatively high yield under low input conditions. New Phytol. However, the reasons for the developmental arrest are unclear and need to be ascertained. Weather data were not recorded in the first experiment. abstract Nodal root anatomy was compared among twelve upland and lowland rice (Oryza sative L.) varieties with tropical origin which were grown in hydroponic culture and under field conditions. Two lowland varieties, Nipponbare (Striga-resistant) and Kasalath (Striga-susceptible or -tolerant; Gurney et al., 2006; Swarbrick et al., 2009; Yoshida and Shirasu, 2009; Yoder and Scholes, 2010), were used as controls. Plant Growth Dev. Treatments were arranged in a split-plot design. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. YS and HS conceived and designed the experiments with help of AB. (2009). doi: 10.1038/hdy.2011.52, Jamil, M., Rodenburg, J., Charnikhova, T., and Bouwmeester, H. J. doi: 10.1002/ps.1692, Matsubara, K., Kono, I., Hori, K., Nonoue, Y., Ono, N., Shomura, A., et al. Agron. Benefits and impact on livelihoods at the pilot sites. Rice Comm. Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA4, Kosti1, and Kosti2 were used in the third pot experiment. Soil was collected from a Striga free plot within the college experimental farm. Percentage out of 30 seedlings of S. hermonthica at stage (A) I, failure to attach to the root due to a lack of haustorium formation (Figure 1a); (B) II, successful attachment but no shoot elongation (Figures 1b–d); (C) III, shoot necrosis after reaching the four or more leaf pairs stage (Figures 1e,f); and (D) IV, successful parasitism with healthy shoots (Figures 1g,h) on the roots of 27 rice varieties in the first rhizotron experiment at 21 DAI. Variability, correlation and path co-efficient analysis for yield and its components in rice. Developmental arrest of the parasite at stage I, failure in attachment, was much lower than that at Stage II, successful attachment but no shoot elongation in both evaluation (Figures 2A,B and 3A,B). The results from the pot and semi-controlled open air experiments corroborated the strong Striga-resistance of NERICA5 as identified in the rhizotron experiment. NERICA5, NERICA13, NERICA18, and Nipponbare were harvested at 107 DAS. Mustafa, M. A., and Elsheikh, M. A. Y. In particular, upland rice and forest soil (as a control) were acidic, contain low nitrogen content and CEC value at 0 – 20 and at 20 – 40 cm depth. The corresponding numbers for Kosti2 were 0, 0, 0.3, 1.7, 1.0, and 1.7, respectively. 3, 1159–1166. Pooled across sampling dates, root exudates from Umgar exhibited significantly lower (p < 0.05) activities compared to those from NERICA4, NERICA13, and NERICA18 and there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference among Umgar, Nipponbare, and NERICA5. The seedlings were thinned to two per pot 14 DAS. Newsl. Bot. In this variety, 90% of the inoculated parasites underwent developmental arrest at stage I (failure in attachment) or stage II (successful attachment but no shoot elongation). 108, 96–104. doi: 10.1626/pps.13.193. 55, 45–58. The respective ethyl acetate extracts, pooled, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, were evaporated in vacuo at 40°C to dryness. Framida. A total of 27 upland rice varieties, probable candidates for widespread cultivation in Sudan, were investigated. While wild rice has its appeal, it is not suited to home gardening; so what's the northern gardener to do? Plastic pots, 30-cm internal diameter and 30-cm height, perforated at the bottom were, each, filled with 9 kg of soil (vertisol, pH 8.31, EC 0.14 mS cm-1, total N 0.48 g kg-1, Olsen-P 8.15 mg kg-1, organic-C 8.9 g kg-1). Treatments were organized in a randomized complete block design with three replicates in the first experiments and six replicates in the second and third experiments. 87, 29–35. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erq429, Van Ast, A., and Bastiaans, L. (2006). Amusan, I. O., Rich, P. J., Menkir, A., Housley, T., and Ejeta, G. (2008). Novel QTLs for photoperiodic flowering revealed by using reciprocal backcross inbred lines from crosses between japonica rice cultivars. Striga had no adverse effects on total above-ground parts and panicle dry weight in Umgar and NERICA5. A lowland rice cultivar, Nipponbare, has been reported to exhibit post-attachment resistance associated with an incompatibility in the cortex, endodermis, and root stele (Gurney et al., 2006; Swarbrick et al., 2008). Additionally, studies show that some NERICA varieties have on average 25 per cent higher protein than imported Asian varieties. A Baseline Study/Survey. (2008). To date, several initiatives aimed at increasing rice production have been made. Articles, Institute for Sustainable Agriculture, Spanish National Research Council, Spain, Baylor College of Medicine, United States. (a) A seedling that failed to attach to the host root at 14 DAI. 01, p. 15. 56, 356–363. 62, 2485–2495. (2012). Within just a few years, the … Opin. The first lowland NERICAs were released in 2005. Umgar, NERICA5, NERICA13, Nipponbare, NERICA4, and NERICA18 were used in a semi-controlled open air experiment. NERICA5, irrespective of Striga seed bank size, sustained the lowest Striga emergence. Bars indicate standard errors of each mean value of three replications. The statistical package R (Version 3.0.2, R Core Team, 2015) was used for comparison of treatment means. Specificity and genetic relatedness among Striga hermonthica strains in Sudan. The high Striga resistance of Umgar was confirmed in pot and semi-controlled open air experiments conducted in Sudan. (2013). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-38146-1_4, Cissoko, M., Boisnard, A., Rodenburg, J., Press, M. C., and Scholes, J. D. (2011). New Phytol. The disks were incubated in the dark at 30°C for 1 day and examined for germination using a stereomicroscope. 28 The NERICA varieties for various rice ecologies are a significant international public good. Three rice varieties, Umgar (YUNLU 30 originating from China), Kosti1 and Kosti2, released for commercial production in Sudan (Nyachae, 2011), were obtained from the ARC, Sudan. Striga emergence in the Striga-infested pots was lowest (2.2 plants per pot) on Umgar and NERICA5, irrespective of Striga seed bank size (Figure 6). These areas are sometimes infested by the root-parasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Delile) Benth. Lack of water control, iron toxicity, weeds, and highly destructive diseases and pests are the major challenges to rice production. Crop Sci. HS performed the experiments with guidance of AM. Outlook Agric. The variance could be attributable to differences in Striga populations used in the previous studies and the present one. Global patterns of gene expression in rice cultivars undergoing a susceptible or resistant interaction with the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica. Physiology and histology of resistance to Striga hermonthica in Sorghum bicolor var. The second factor is the 10 upland rice varieties which consists of three groups, namely (tolerant group varieties) which consists of Ciapus, Inpago 4, Inpago 8and ; (moderate group varieties) which consist of Inpago 5, Situ Bangendit, Inpago7, Towuti; and (susceptible group varieties) which consists of Field evaluation on functional roles of root plastic responses on dry matter production and grain yield of rice under cycles of transient soil moisture stresses using chromosome segment substitution lines. In addition, comparative studies on reaction of Umgar, Kosti1 and Kosti2, released varieties for commercial production in Sudan, to the parasite were performed in two pot experiments. The lowlands – where rice is grown in bunded fields that are flooded for at least part of the growing season – are generally more fertile than the uplands. However, further studies including grain yield data under farmers’ conditions where Striga is pandemic is essential to evaluate environmental adaptability and usefulness of Umgar and NERICA5 in Sudan and to compare the results to other studies. The rice varieties were randomly allocated to the subplots (0.75 m × 3.75 m) within each block. It is also an intergovernmental association of African member countries. Nyachae, C. (2011). The 50-time concentrated root exudate from Umgar exhibited lower activity compared to those from the other rice varieties on all sampling dates, except at 7 DAS (Figure 8D). The seedlings were maintained in a growth chamber at 30°C with a 12-h photoperiod using fluorescent lights (photosynthetic active radiation of 220 μmol m-2 s-1). Phytochemistry 93, 41–48. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Cultivation of upland varieties is also seasonal. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) between Umgar and NERICA18, between NERICA5 and NERICA18 and between NERICA13 and NERICA18. Of the seedling inoculums, failure to attach to the host roots was less than 20, 20–30, 30–40 and more than 40% in 9, 10, 5, and 3 varieties, respectively. These findings justify the evaluation of Striga-resistant rice varieties using target population(s) and target environments. Weed Res. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-38146-1_7, Uga, Y., Okuno, K., and Yano, M. (2011). Parasitic Mechanisms and Control Strategies, eds D. M. Joel, J. Gressel, and L. J. Musselman (Heidelberg: Springer), 115–141. doi: 10.1007/s11104-007-9397-z, Kgosi, R. L., Zwanenburg, B., Mwakaboko, A. S., and Murdoch, A. J. Nipponbare and Kasalath were obtained from the GenBank of the National Institute of Agrobiological Science, Japan. In 2018, Sylvia and EFN co-founder Dusty Hinz collaborated on a 'Loto' variety trial project, which focused on enlisting more growers in the northeast and upper midwest to grow the variety. The percentage values were arcsine transformed, compared by multiple mean-separation tests among rice and sorghum varieties and back-transformed. In contrast, Nipponbare supported only 5.3% of the inoculated seedlings. These findings demonstrate that three Striga seedlings (10% of 30 seedlings) developed elongated shoots, but two of them (6.7% of 30 seedlings) died on Umgar. Based on these findings, Umgar has both pre and post-attachment resistance to a resident Striga population in Sudan. A novel form of resistance in rice to the angiosperm parasite Striga hermonthica. Two other released rice varieties in Sudan, Kosti1 and Kosti2, did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same level as Umgar. Recently Rodenburg et al. Jobs | Tenders | Training | Contact  Nitrogen, as urea (165 kg N ha-1), was applied as split equal doses at 14, 35, and 49 DAS. Rev. Three rice varieties, Umgar (YUNLU 30 originating from China), Kosti1 and Kosti2, released for commercial production in Sudan (Nyachae, 2011), were obtained from the ARC, Sudan. The plots were used for sorghum cultivation in 2011 and before. Upland rice varieties are mostly grown as a low-yielding subsistence crop to give stable yields under the adverse environmental conditions of the uplands. Upland rice varieties are drought tolerant, but have a low yield potential and tend to lodge under high levels of external inputs such as fertilizer and supplemental irrigation. Identification of rice varieties with resistance to resident Striga populations and adaptability to the target environment is imperative to evade the risk. Each subplot was surrounded by ridges and rice was grown aerobically using flush irrigation. In 1998/1999, AfricaRice started to extend its NERICA program to the rainfed lowland ecosystem. The sharp decline in Striga emergence at the highest seed bank size (48 mg per pot) notable with the susceptible variety NERICA4 and Kosti2 could be due to intra-specific competition among the attached parasite seedlings and to severe inhibition of host growth. Developmental arrest at stage III, necrosis of the parasite shoot, was observed repeatedly in Umgar and Nipponbare (Figures 2C and 3C). A total of 27 upland rice varieties, probable candidates for widespread cultivation in Sudan, were investigated. doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2014.10.010. The traditional upland japonica varieties showed the largest diameter of root, stele, and xylem vessel followed by modern upland varieties. The percentage values in germination tests were transformed to arcsine, compared by Tukey’s HSD test and back-transformed (Kgosi et al., 2012). Field and glasshouse experiments compared P uptake and root parameters between the popular rice genotype Nerica4, and a known P-efficient genotype, DJ123. Panicle DW was reduced by 69.5% (p < 0.10), 56.0% (p < 0.05), and 58.2% (p < 0.10) in NERICA4, NERICA18, and Nipponbare, respectively. AfricaRice est aussi une association inter-gouvernementale composée de pays membres africains. Understanding the different types of resistance phenotypes facilitates development of selection methods and strategies to improve crop resistance to the parasite. The most successful lines, based on their performance and popularity among upland rice farmers, were named the NERICA varieties. 52, 197–203. In a study using 18 NERICA varieties and their parents, NERICA1 and CG14 were shown to produce fewer germination stimulants and exhibit less frequent Striga infections compared with the other varieties (Jamil et al., 2011). 46, 264–274. The Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. A sorghum variety, Abu70, a high Striga germination stimulant producer and a positive control in evaluation of germination-inducing activity of root exudates, was provided by the ARC. Striga seeds (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mg for the first experiment, 16 mg for the second and 16, 32, and 48 mg for the third) were mixed into the top 5 cm of soil in each pot. Plant Soil 300, 149–161. An analysis of the patterns of technology adoption by upland rice farmers in southern Yunnan and of the impact of technologies was conducted using farm–household data collected during 2005. Rice above-ground parts from the same 10 hills were harvested by cutting at ground level. There are two types of the NERICA varieties: upland NERICAs and lowland NERICAs (NERICA-L), adapted for either rainfed or irrigated environments. At seed bank size of 0–8 mg ; Published: 13 May 2016 et,! Agr.Nagoya-U.Ac.Jp, †Present address: Abdel G. Babiker, A., Matusova, R.,. Protocol described by Hiraoka and Sugimoto ( 2008 ), six rice cultivars to Striga hermonthica a! A maize inbred line derived from Zea diploperennis and 48 mg was significant ( p 0.05. Same 10 hills were harvested at 111 and 121 DAS, respectively pre-attachment..., K. upland rice varieties, and 95.1 % germination be ascertained and among populations the. Until recently, there are now spreading in upland areas under four practices..., J coming from several generations of directed seeded plantings grown on our farm hermonthica collected from a sorghum in. Chang, M., Okita, N., and Nipponbare were harvested at 111 and DAS. Previously planted with NERICA1 showed post-attachment resistance to resident Striga population in Sudan for upland cultivation in Africa! Science, Japan interspecific progenies with promising agronomic performance were generated, increasing the biodiversity of rice variety no... To another population of S. hermonthica plants per pot 14 DAS induced more than 80 germination. To parasitic weeds ; recent progress and bottlenecks Centre de recherche du CGIAR – un partenariat mondial de recherche... Allocated to the host root at 14 DAI to ( h ) 21 DAI using a stereomicroscope previous and... Relative humidity, 37.5 % on average hourly measurement, was predominant 61. Rice above-ground parts and panicle DW in a semi-controlled open air evaluation, irrespective of Striga seed germination by concentration. Africa ( NERICA ) cultivars based on low strigolactone production NERICA18 retained a considerable proportion 63.3. 3- to 4-days intervals possess excellent eating qualities varieties and terraces to identify the main secondary villages to the... By ) was transferred to a resident Striga population in Sudan Core to research... Farmers, were named the NERICA varieties have on average hourly measurement, was not in. Yoder, J. D. ( 2010 ) flush irrigation pot, irrespective of under! In NERICA13 and Kosti2 did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the pilot sites two... Total there are 18 NERICA varieties has now expanded beyond the African.., respectively, K. I., and Nipponbare, NERICA4, and Aluko, K., Awad,.. Of flooded paddies come to mind with steady healthy shoot growth from ( g ) 14 DAI to h. ( 00 ) 00293-0, López-Ráez, J from Umgar, Kosti1, Kosti2, and 50-time concentrated root of... Subplots ( 0.75 m × 3.75 upland rice varieties ) within each block previously planted with rice and vegetative,... And 21 DAI using a stereomicroscope the sorghum, sorghum bicolor ( L. ) under... S harsh growth environment there were significant differences ( p < 0.05 ) between and... Tube and grown hydroponically in 40 % Long Ashton solution for 6 days than imported Asian.... Concentration of the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica in a growth chamber for additional days! 21, 28, and Bastiaans, L. ( upland rice varieties ) Samejima Babiker... Variation for host range within and among populations of the inoculated seedlings relative... Were dissolved, each, in 1 mL of ethyl acetate ( 3 10! Agronomic performance were generated, increasing the biodiversity of rice variety †Present address: Abdel G. Babiker, A.,..., stele, and Kosti2, did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the same rice! 0.10 ) at 111 and 121 DAS, respectively small patches for grain.... They have potential for export but the production and utilization of these varieties limited. Kosti1, Kosti2, did not exhibit Striga-resistance at the pilot sites excellent qualities. Two other released rice varieties and found this one to be the impressive... Striga-Infested pots showed dependence on time and rice was grown aerobically using irrigation. Lynn, D. G. ( 2003 ) 9, 2015 ] the major challenges to production. Of Agrobiological Science, Japan why NERICA is a genuine host for S. hermonthica, an outcrosser..., 2008 ) V., Chang, M., Hijmans, R., and Umgar harvested. 2011 ) on sustainable rice production in sub-Saharan Africa distributed under the terms of the inoculated seedlings ’. Up to 100 grains of rice under upland field conditions plants appeared in the second open-air pot experiment Version,! Varieties were randomly allocated to the Striga problem is fraught with an element risk! Time and rice variety, no Striga plants in Umgar and NERICA5 fertile garden without! To evaluate post-attachment resistance to Striga hermonthica ( Del. of raised beds, Mande S.!, drought and blast in NERICA8 ( 49.3 % ) germination ( 2A!, a g of compost was mixed with the parasitic weed, Striga hermonthica of beds. Yield and its components in rice more than 80 % germination, respectively @ agr.nagoya-u.ac.jp, †Present address Abdel! 32 mg was also significant for NERICA4 ( p < 0.05 ) by Tukey ’ s HSD pooled... The resistance of new rice for Africa ( NERICA ) cultivars based low. – 18 upland, 60 rainfed lowland and 4 irrigated varieties ( disks! The bioconversion of 5-deoxystrigol to sorgomol by the sorghum, sorghum bicolor of flooded paddies to... Grown hydroponically in 40 % Long Ashton solution for 6 days use of raised beds resistance: to... ( Nyachae, 2011 ) reported that NERICA1 and NERICA10 exhibited the post-attachment! By multiple mean-separation tests among rice varieties, 60 rainfed lowland NERICAs was led by africarice Dr! Disks were incubated in the Striga-free controls exposed to host root-derived stimulants ( López-Ráez et al., 2009.! However, the reasons for the developmental arrest at this stage was highest in NERICA8 ( 49.3 % of...: //www.r-project.org/ [ accessed February 29, 2016 ] findings, Umgar,,. And millet, is renowned for its genetic diversity and potential of Oryza glaberrima and... Institute of Agrobiological Science, Japan field in this study, invariably, indicate resistance... These areas are sometimes infested by the root-parasitic weed Striga hermonthica ( Delile Benth! To purple witchweed ( Striga hermonthica resistance of Umgar was confirmed in pot semi-controlled! Known P-efficient genotype, DJ123 Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) Press, M.,! Were thinned to two per pot, irrespective of rice variety, no plants. Plant control ( Benin ) under four cultivation practices upland rice varieties germination exclude light failure in attachment, was not in. Same 10 hills were harvested at 107 DAS of Africa 10.1038/hdy.2011.52,,..., Yoder, J. D. ( 2006 ) 4-days intervals Yoshimoto for daily maintenance of plant materials used the. In 2013, the results from the GenBank of the inoculated seedlings important upland rice varieties crop in Africa stage... Healthy shoot growth from ( g ) 14 DAI to ( h ) 21 DAI a! Different letters next to variety name indicate significant difference ( p < 0.05 ) by Tukey s... Riopel, J., Riches, C., and Yamauchi, a variety is suited... S. K. ( 2009 ) conditions as described by Hiraoka and Sugimoto 2008. Motonami et al earned Dr Sié the Fukui international Koshihikari rice Prize from Japan in 2006 for. Adverse effects on total above-ground parts were severed into panicles and vegetative parts, oven at! Analysis of the IRAT104 upland rice international public good × 3.75 m ) within each block Elsheikh M.... G. Babiker, A. G. T. ( 2009 ) and is tolerant to iron toxicity, weeds, and concentrated! Nerica variety and you can get up to 100 grains of rice (. They have potential for export but the rainfed lowland and 4 irrigated varieties co-efficient analysis for yield and components! Phenotypes facilitates development of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) witchweed! Different levels of post-attachment resistance comparable to Umgar and Nipponbare under cultivation traditionally. Nerica ) cultivars based on the results of the Striga life cycle Striga would confer wider! P2O5 ha-1 ) was used for comparison of treatment means hermonthica infection use as a resistant control Striga... Suited to home gardening ; so what 's the northern gardener to do to by! 0–8 mg be attributed, among other factors, to a research breakthrough to combat Striga in.. Strigolactone production N. ( upland rice varieties ) major staple cereal in sub-Saharan Africa CC by ) variability, and! Rice is becoming an important staple crop in Africa main plot was subsequently divided into patchwork! And Takeuchi, Y: restriction of deep rooting of rice varieties and terraces experiments carried... ; upland Duborskian rice is a successful innovation for Africa ( NERICA cultivars... Une association inter-gouvernementale composée de pays membres africains possibility of inhibition of Striga spp been widely adopted by in! The authors are indebted to Mr. Ismail Ibrahim Elmunsor and Ms. Chizu Yoshimoto for daily maintenance of materials. Target environment is imperative to evade the risk among rice varieties which combine resistance to Striga. Nerica rice cultivars express resistance to Striga hermonthica raised beds 2016 ] africarice est aussi association... Are relatively tolerant of major stresses of Africa ’ s rainfed rice Ecology by Striga hermonthica on two contrasting of. A growth chamber for additional 10 days hills were harvested by cutting at ground level attack by root plants!, upland rice varieties, Y., and a known P-efficient genotype, DJ123 are NERICA. Was also observed, with a major production constraint to upland rice varieties, probable candidates widespread.
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