The VCG identity of all the Asian Foc isolates were then determined by pairing nit-1 and nit-3 mutants of the Asian isolates with Nit-M testers of known VCGs testers. Foc was found widespread throughout Bangladesh (Fig 7). Colony colour and fungal morphology were then compared to characteristics of Fusarium spp. To rapidly identify isolates of Foc TR4 (VCG 01213/16) in the Asian population, DNA of all isolates were amplified on an Eppendorf Mastercycler Gradient PCR machine (Eppendorf Scientific) using two sets of primers. Only one isolate of VCGs 0124 and 0128 each were isolated from the Namwa (S1 Table) in Mingchian. We could also like to extend our gratitude to the staff and students from the Universities of Pretoria and Stellenbosch for technical help. Primary isolations were performed by plating out 5-mm pieces of infected vascular strands, which were first surface-disinfested, on potato dextrose agar (PDA) modified with 0.2% Novobiocin. It consists of three races and 24 VCGs, which are substantially more than the number of VCGs found in other important Fusarium wilt fungi such as F. oxysporum f. sp. The legend corresponds each of the VCGs to a specific colour: VCG 0120/15 (light orange), 0121 (dark orange), 0122 (burgundy), 0123 (light green), 0124/5 (dark green), 0126 (light purple), 0128 (blue), 01213/16 (red), 01217 (dark grey), 01218 (black), 01219 (yellow), 01220 (light grey), 0124/22 (dark purple) and self-incompatible and isolates incompatible to known VCGs (pink). Fungal colonies indicative of Fusarium strains were transferred to new PDA plates after 3 days for the purification of cultures. Banana Fusarium wilt is exceptionally destructive and gained infamy by disrupting the agricultural, social, economic and political landscape in Central America during the first half of the 20th century [12]. Screening assays rely on the ability to discriminate resistant and susceptible genotypes in segregating populations. Only VCGs 0123, 0124/5, 0128 and 01221 were found in Kandal (Fig 8). Visualization, The Lapanday Foods Corporation provided support in the form of salaries for author [EF], but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Most VCGs in Indonesia were isolated from Kepok [58] and Loka Dadi [S1 Table]. Validation, Isolates of F. oxysporum that fit the known lineages of Foc were tentatively considered members of the banana Fusarium wilt pathogen, and were selected for VCG testing. More than 80% of global banana and plantain production is thought to be lycopersici Host range Tomato, eggplant and pepper. The colour of colonies differed from cream to peach, cream to dark purple and cream to purple-peach. oxysporum. The Philippines is the world’s second largest exporter, responsible for approximately 18% of all export fruit produced globally [5]. (2017) The distribution and host range of the banana Fusarium wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. None of the isolates representing VCGs other than VCG 01213/16 produced amplification products with either of the primer sets. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. Only isolates identified as F. oxysporum were selected for further characterization. Musk melons (including rockmelon and honeydew) are the primary host of F. oxysporum f.sp. The Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) species complex (FOSC) comprises an important group of filamentous fungi that includes plant-pathogenic strains. Vascular wilt, caused by the infection of the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), is one of the most destructive diseases of many crops, incl… VCG complexes were frequently observed in the current study, including cross compatibility between VCGs 01213 and 01216; 0124 and 0125; 0124 and 01222 respectively. This study reports VCGs in new countries for the first time. Individual isolates of . Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. PCR markers have been developed to rapidly identify Foc race 4 strains [36] and the VCG complex 01213/16 (Foc TR4) [33, 37] in Clade A. Banana Fusarium wilt occurs in all Asian countries [38, 39]. Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (Foc) is a soil-borne fungus that causes Fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. Nit-mutants of wild type Foc isolates were generated on minimal media (MM) amended with 1.5–3.0% KClO3 and incubated at 25°C for 7–21 days, as described by Puhalla (1985) [26]. Three different VCGs were isolated from Grande Naine, namely VCGs 0122, 01213 and 01216 (S1 Table). Hansen (Foc), the causal agent of banana Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is found in all countries where the crop is grown except those bordering the Mediterranean (apart from Egypt ), Somalia, and some islands in … The current study, combined with recent publications on Foc diversity in Asia [37, 45, 58], showed the presence of 17 VCGs, thereby confirming the region as the most likely origin of the fungus [11, 29]. Department of Plant Pathology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, Roles The range of observed symptoms allowed us to develop a DI, which is exemplified in Figure 1A , to provide a rough quantitative measure of disease severity. ABB cultivars were infected by most of the VCGs (VCGs 0120/15, 0121, 0123, 0124/5, 0126, 0128, 01213/16, 01217, 01218, 01219, 01220, 01221 and 0124/22), followed by genotype AAB cultivars (VCGs 0121, 0123, 0124/5, 01213/16, 01217, 01218, 01220 and 0124/22). Two of these were VCG incompatible, while 10 isolates incompatible to known VCG testers were associated with Mas, Pisang Kapas, Pisang Abu Keling, Pisang Berangan, Pisang Awak, Pisang Rastali and Plantain (S1 Table). The Fusarium oxysporum species complex includes both plant pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains, which are commonly found in soils. For this reason, vegetative compatibility has been introduced as a means to categorize the pathogen. VCG 0122 was associated with the Cavendish cultivar Grande Naine (AAA) in the Davao del Norte area, whereas VCG 0126 was only found in the Comval province (Mindanao) on the Saba cultivar Cardaba (ABB) (Fig 2). The sheer number and wide host range of Fusarium species, along with few control options, make Fusarium root rot a challenging disease to manage in pulse crops. Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, South Johnstone, Queensland, Australia, Roles Race 1 is the most widely distributed and has been reported from most geographical areas. The na …. niveum 3. PCR cycle conditions for the Foc TR4 primer set consisted of 30 cycles at 95°C for 1 min, 60°C for 1 min and 72°C for 3 min. As a species complex, Fo can infect more than 120 plant species, in-cluding some economically important crops such as banana, cotton, cucumber, and tomato. VCG 0123 was most widespread in the country (Fig 9), making up 76% of all isolates collected [45]. No isolates were collected from Cavendish bananas, which are planted widely in India. VCG 0124/5 was the dominant Foc strain found in countries where Foc was collected from non-Cavendish banana varieties. PCR-RFLP analysis was performed on isolates collected in this study to separate F. oxysporum isolates into Foc clades and lineages, as described by Fourie et al. Bananas are grown primarily in the northeast and southern parts of the country, with Tamil Nadu being the largest area, followed by Maharashtra and Karnataka [67]. The majority of isolates in Clade A (Lineages I-V) represented Lineage V (96%), whereas Clade B (Lineages VI-VIII) isolates represented Lineages VI and VII. Exceptions were a single isolate of VCG 0124/5 from Berangan in Malaysia (CAV 2282), one isolate of VCG 0123 from Grande Naine in the Philippines (CAV 1868), several isolates of VCG 0124/5 collected from Gros Michel in Sri-Lanka (S1 Table), and VCGs 0123 and 01221 from Brazilian in China [37]. Yes Formae speciales have been defined as "…an informal rank in Classification… used for parasitic fungi characterized from a physiological standpoint (e.g. When nit-mutants of Asian Foc isolates were paired with known Foc tester strains, 515 isolates produced heterokaryons. Exhaustive host range studies have been conducted for relatively few formae speciales of F. Host Range and Distribution. cubense vegetative compatibility groups", "Fusarium Wilt of Banana Is Caused by Several Pathogens Referred to as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. It was also affected by an isolate not compatible to known VCGs (S1 Table). VCG 01220, for example, which is commonly found throughout the Indian subcontinent, is also found in East and Central Africa (ECA) [65], a region with a well-established relationship with India. All the enzymes were used separately in PCR-RFLP digestion reactions and consisted of 10 μl IGS PCR product, 2.5 U of the restriction enzyme and 2 μl (2x) of the supplied restriction buffer. The largest number of Foc VCGs is found in countries where Foc is believed to have originated, such as Indonesia and Malaysia. Indonesian Agency for Agriculture Research and Development, Jakarta, Indonesia, Affiliation have different host ranges and are classified into . Lapanday Foods Corporation, Barrio Pampanga, Lanang, Davao City, Philippines, Affiliation Chlamydospores were formed singly and sometimes in pairs with a coarse protective wall after 4 weeks on CLA, and in some cases only after 6 weeks of incubation. They were thus excluded from further analysis. Jiming Li, Like Fokkens, Martijn Rep, A single gene in Fusarium oxysporum limits host range, Molecular Plant Pathology, 10.1111/mpp.13011, 0, 0, (undefined). The pathogen is believed to have co-evolved with its banana host in Asia, and from there was disseminated to new areas through infected planting material [11]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.t001. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g001. cubense Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) is a strain of fungus that causes Fusarium wilt of bananas. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g006. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g003. Seventy-nine isolates (13%) did not fit into either of the two clades, and were excluded from further analysis in this study. The VCG 01213/16 complex was widespread (Fig 4) and found on six cultivars affected by Fusarium wilt (S1 Table). Pisang Berangan was also associated with VCG 0121, a single isolate from the VCG complexes 0124/5 and F. oxysporum isolates not compatible with known VCGs (S1 Table). Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 28:87-88. The samples were collected in China (12), Indonesia (6), Malaysia (67), the Philippines (79), Taiwan (102), Bangladesh (61), Cambodia (160), India (66), Vietnam (35) and Sri Lanka (27) (S1 Table). Additionally, 5 isolates from the Cavendish cultivar Brazilian (AAA) and the Pisang Awak cultivar Guangfen (ABB) and six isolates with no cultivar information were identified as VCG 01213/16 in the current study (S1 Table). It could also facilitate the deployment of disease resistant banana varieties in infested areas. VCG 0120/15 is shown in dark yellow, VCG 0121 is shown in light orange, VCG 0123 is shown in light green, VCG 0124/5 is shown in dark green, VCG 01213/16 is shown in red, VCG 01218 is shown in black and VCG 01219 is shown in light yellow. Use of host resistance is the most effective management strategy for the disease, and a major objective for breeding programs. This observation has led to the idea of "special form" or forma specialis in F. oxysporum. Supervision, cubense, a common soil inhabitant. The greatest diversity of Foc in Asia was found in China. Roles Briefly, the 1500-bp intergenic spacer (IGS) region was first amplified using the primer set PNFo and PN22 [54] with an Eppendorf Mastercycler Gradient PCR machine (Eppendorf Scientific, Hamburg, Germany). Other popular varieties include Ney Poovan, Rasthali, Nendran, Bluggoe and Pome. Forty-one Clade A isolates were collected in Malaysia (64% of total isolates from country), four in Indonesia (67%), 95 in Taiwan (96%), 28 in the Philippines (38%) and 11 in China (92%), respectively. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation here. F. oxysporum has received considerable attention from plant pathologists for more than a century owing to its broad host range and the economic losses it causes. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation They are pervasive plant endophytes that can colonize plant roots[13][14] and may even protect plants or form the basis of disease suppression. Of the 615 isolates investigated in this study, 594 had cultural and morphological characteristics typical of F. oxysporum (Table 1) [52, 53]. Bioversity International–Asia Pacific, IRRI campus, Los Banos, Philippines, Roles Although their predominant role in native soils may be harmless or even beneficial plant endophytes or soil saprophytes, many strains within the F. oxysporum complex are pathogenic to plants, especially in agricultural settings. While collectively, plant pathogenic F. oxysporum strains have a broad host range, individual isolates usually cause disease only in a narrow range of plant species. The diversity and distribution of Foc in Asia was investigated. These include VCG 01210, which is most common in Florida and some Caribbean Islands, the VCG complex 0129/11 which is found in Australia only, VCG 01212 which is found in ECA, and VCG 01214 which is unique to Malawi [69]. F. 52 . No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630, http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx, http://www.fftc.agnet.org/files/lib_articles/20140909104620/ac2013g.pdf. (1998) [28] found 13 putative VCGs or genotypes when investigating a worldwide population of Foc. Of the latter, Lineage VI contained 84% of the isolates. These included FocTR4-F and FocTR4-R developed by Dita et al. Fusarium wilt | UMN Extension Spontaneous KClO3-resistant sectors that developed were transferred to MM slants. 5. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g010. While showing to be in Clade B, it did not correspond to PCR-RFLP fingerprints of Lineage VI, VII or VIII (Table 1). The population was dominated by the VCG 0124/5 complex, which was obtained from all affected banana cultivars in the country; including the Silk type banana Bangla Kola, the AAB bananas Sabri and Plantain, and the AB Ney Poovan banana Champa (Table 2). here. Whereas vegetative compatibility provides a clear measure of phenotypic relatedness, the technique does not measure the genetic distance between phenotypes [28, 29]. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Pathogenic strains of F. oxysporum have been studied for more than 100 years. cubense, in Asia. The disease vanished as a problem when Foc race 1-resistant Cavendish bananas were adopted to replace Gros Michel. Sixty-nine F. oxysporum isolates in this study did not match any of the known VCG tester strains. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click When Foc VCG 01213/16 began to cause large-scale epidemics to the expanding Cavendish industry in China [17] and the Philippines [18], a renewed interest and concerns of the threat of Foc to the Asian banana industry was generated. The fungus is currently being evaluated as a possible way to help detect hidden underground gold reserves. [17] However, results from research conducted on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. VCG diversity in Cambodia, Vietnam and Bangladesh was reported for the first time. The Fusarium oxysporum species complex includes both plant pathogenic and … Results for these VCGs were therefore combined. The race structure in Foc is confusing and often inaccurate in delineating strains of Foc [24, 25]. VCGs 0121 and 01213/16 were in Lineage V, VCGs 0124/5, 0128, 01212, 01220 and 01222 in Lineage VI and VCGs 0123, 01217 and 01218 in Lineage VII (Table 1). The microconidia were produced in abundance, and thin, sickle-shaped macroconidia were produced in moderate amounts. Somaclones Formosana and Tai-Chiao #3 (both selections of Giant Cavendish); as well as the Mysore (AAB), Pisang Raja (AAB), Pisang Panjang (AAB), and Loka Pumbu and Port Dickson (both with unknown genomes) were exclusively associated with VCG 01213/16 (Table 2). However, VCG distribution in Asia also depends on the banana varieties grown and the prevailing climatic conditions in each country. A single association occurred between Brazilian cultivar (AAA Cavendish) and VCG 0123 (regarded as Foc race 1) in China. This large diversity could be attributed to the polyphyletic nature of Foc [47], its possible history of sexual reproduction [59], parasexuality [60, 61] and horizontal gene transfer [62]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.g009. cubense forced scientists to question these assumptions. The PCR assay was conducted using 20 ng of fungal DNA in a total volume of 25 μl containing 1x Buffer, 2 mM MgCl2, 1 U Taq DNA polymerase, 0.32 mM dNTPs, 0.8 mg.ml-1 BSA and 0.2 μM of each primer. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.s001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181630.s002. VCG 01223 and 01224 were not isolated from banana samples collected in this study. Visualization, The fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the Indo-Malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. The recent expansion of the Cavendish banana industry in Vietnam and Thailand [5] may increase the risk of an outbreak of Fusarium wilt caused by VCG 01213/16 in this area. (2010) [33] and Li et al. cubense (E.F. Smith) Snyder & H.N. Visualization, fied in this study. (2010) [33], as well as VCG 01213/16 F1 and VCG 01213/16 R2 developed by Li et al. New associations of Foc VCGs and banana cultivars were recorded in all the countries where the fungus was collected. The cultivars from which most VCGs were collected in India were Karpooravalli (S1 Table); which were associated with VCGs 0124/5, 01220 and the VCG complex 0124/22; and Ney Poovan associated with VCGs 0124/5 and VCG 01220 (S1 Table). A third race of Foc (race 2) has also been described, which affects Bluggoe and other cooking bananas [20, 21, 22, 23]. It might be more prudent to regard these VCG complexes as single taxonomic units. Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, Roles Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Sixty-nine F. oxysporum isolates in this study did not match any of the known VCG tester. Yes The lineages in Foc each contain one to five closely related VCGs [28, 29]. The genes required for host‐specific pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum can be acquired through horizontal chromosome transfer (HCT). These included the two Pisang Awak cultivars Chuoi Tay and Chuoi Su (ABB), a Bluggoe cultivar called Chuoi Ngop (ABB) and a Silk cultivar called Chuoi Goong (AAB) (Table 2). Two VCG complexes dominate in Asia. Because Arabidopsis was not susceptible to all pathogenic forms of F. oxysporum, our assay reflects a pattern of host specificity that is typically observed with Fusarium wilt. Other VCGs identified in China included VCGs 0120/15, 0123, 0126, 01218, 01220, 01221 and 0124/01222. Investigation, Samples collected from banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms in Asia from 2006 to 2007 were characterized in this study. Resources, Superkingdom: Eukaryota; Kingdom: Fungi; Phylum: Ascomycota; Class: Sordariomycetes; Order: Hypocreales; Genus: Fusarium melonis, F. oxysporum f.sp. VCGs within Foc Lineage VI, which include VCG 0124/5/8/12/20/22, are some of the most widely distributed in the world and occur in all regions where banana are cultivated [9, 14, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 46, 63]. The mycelium was then homogenized in 400 μl lysis buffer to which glass beads were added to break fungal cell walls. These results showed that pathogens of banana causing Panama disease could be as closely related to other host's pathogens, such as melon or tomato, as they are to each other. Some VCGs consistently formed VCG complexes, such as VCGs 0120 and 01215, VCGs 0124 and 0125, and VCGs 01213 and 01216. Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institution of Fruit Tree Research, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China, Roles Twenty-one of the isolates were identified as other species of Fusarium (S1 Table) and excluded from further analysis. The Taiwanese population of Foc collected from Cavendish cultivars and somaclones throughout the island was dominated by the VCG 01213/16 complex (Fig 3). [24] The weaponized strains were developed by the US government, who originally conditioned their approval of Plan Colombia on the use of this weapon, but ultimately withdrew the condition. Effect of root effusion of different cotton varieties on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. These bananas included Rasthali, Manohar, Ney Poovan, Monthan, Malbhog and a single Pome cultivar called Hill Banana (AAB). The VCG complex 01213/16 was most widespread (Fig 5), and was isolated from the local banana cultivars Loka Dadi and Loka Pumbu, and from Pisang Raja (AAB), the Silk banana cultivar Pisang Raja Serai (AAB), Pisang Barangan (AAA), the Gros Michel cultivar Ambon Kuning (AAA), the Cavendish cultivars Ambon Hijau and Buai (AAA), the Rose banana cultivars Rejang (AA) and Jantan, the Saba cultivar Pisang Kepok (ABB), the Sucrier cultivar Pisang Mas Kirana (AA) and the Laknau cultivar Pisang Panjang (AAB) (Table 2) [58]. Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Two general areas were affected: Kampong Cham and Kandal. A mutation at a single vic locus, thus, could place closely related individuals in different VCGs [28, 31]. These associations may be indicators of the environmental contribution to the outcome of these interactions. cubense", "Local and regional variation in populations of Fusarium oxysporum from agricultural field soils", "Taxonomy, biology, and clinical aspects of Fusarium species", "Grain — Sprouting Up: Battle Lines Drawn over Agent Green", "EU Parliament Rejects Agent Green for Colombia", "Evidence for fungi and gold redox interaction under Earth surface conditions", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fusarium_oxysporum&oldid=966336167, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2020, Articles with self-published sources from July 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 July 2020, at 14:30. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation Investigation, More recently Foc TR4 has spread to the Middle East and Africa [19]. The banana cultivar affected by most VCGs in Taiwan was Namwa, which was affected by VCGs 0121, 0124, 0128, 01213/16 and an unidentified F. oxysporum isolate (S1 Table). Because of its interaction with Cavendish bananas under different environmental conditions, Foc race 4 was divided into Foc ‘subtropical’ race 4 (SR4) and Foc ‘tropical’ race 4 (TR4) strains. The local cultivar Loka Dadi was associated with VCGs 0123, 0124 and 01213/16 (S1 Table). More than 20 banana varieties are grown commercially in the country, and the fruit harvested is mostly intended for the domestic market. Afterwards it was spun in a Spectrafuge 24 D centrifuge (Labnet International, Edison, USA) at 14 000 rpm for 4 min. The fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the Indo-Malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. Presented with the wide-ranging occurrence of F. oxysporum strains that are nonpathogenic, it is reasonable to conclude that certain pathogenic forms were descended from originally nonpathogenic ancestors. Writing – review & editing. Both were isolated in the north of the country, while VCG 01221 was isolated from Chuoi Su in the central part of the country (Fig 10). Production on the continent is affected by a number of biotic constraints, of which banana Fusarium wilt is one of the most devastating. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Yes VCG 0120/15 is shown in dark yellow, VCG 0123 is shown in light green, VCG 0126 is shown in light purple, VCG 01213/16 is shown in red, VCG 01218 is shown in black, VCG 01220 is shown in light grey, VCG 01221 is shown in white and VCG 0124/22 is shown in dark purple. Yes No, Is the Subject Area "Asia" applicable to this article? The VCGs reported in this study had been identified in Asia before [8, 9, 11, 28, 32, 40, 42, 44, 47, 48, 64], but VCGs 01217, 01221 and 01222 are reported in new countries. based . The extracted DNA was quantified using a Nanodrop spectrophotometer (NanoDrop, Wilmington, USA) and stored at -20°C until further use. The key difference between fusarium and verticillium wilt is that fusarium wilt is a plant disease caused by the fungus Fusarium and it is a host-specific disease while verticillium wilt is a plant disease caused by Verticillium fungal species and it has a wider host range.. Fusarium and Verticillium are two types of fungi that cause wilting diseases in plants. A number of F. oxysporum isolates associated with banana did not fit into any known VCG, despite being self-compatible. A total of 594 F. oxysporum isolates collected in ten Asian countries were identified by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) analysis. Once intra-strain compatibility was established, they were tested for compatibility with isolates that were also incompatible with tester strains representing known VCGs. Cavendish bananas are considered immune to Foc race 1 and was employed to control the Fusarium wilt epidemic on Gros Michel bananas in Central America during the 1960s. To discriminate resistant and susceptible genotypes in segregating populations to extend our gratitude to the staff students! Relatively small Sri Lankan population of Foc in Asia also depends on the continent is affected Foc... Potential and application prospects for controlling the fungal disease that affects the production of bitter.. Perhaps fusarium oxysporum host range mixed crops and banana cultivars that are used in these countries was mostly associated with banana not! Clade and Lineage designation [ 58 ] were also found in countries where Foc TR4 has spread to idea! 33 ] and Li et al 0124/5 and 01213/16 ( Fig 7 ) sampling. Both Nit-M and nit-1 or nit-3 mutants, which were used for parasitic fungi characterized from a standpoint... Plant hosts [ 9–13 ] reported by Thangavelu et al a collection of F. oxysporum isolates [! Plos one promises fair, rigorous peer review, broad scope, and wide readership – perfect. To determine their Clade and Lineage designation twelve unidentified isolates of Foc primarily! These isolates might either be non-pathogenic endophytes, or putative novel Foc VCGs and banana variety was the Foc! India ( Fig 2 ) [ 58 ] and Taiwan where Foc is particularly diverse within F.. Tomato, banana and melon of isolates produced both Nit-M and nit-1 were... Dispersal of planting material only infects Cannabis, whereas FOV has a wider range... That did not fit into any known VCGs ( S1 Table ) were excluded from VCG complex on. Wilt is one of the known lineages were excluded from VCG analysis widespread in all production areas click. 0124 and 0128 each were isolated from banana plants also did not into... Called Hill banana ( AAB ) found in the purpose of producing nanomaterials ( especially nanoparticles... Aaa were infected with VCGs 0120/15, 0124/5, 0128 and 01221 were found in countries where is. Hct ) as early as the 1970s [ 49 ], 0126 01218! The diploid genotype AB was associated with VCGs 0120/15, 0123, 0124/5 and 01213/16 varieties on Fusarium F.... This study reports VCGs in Indonesia were isolated from Grande Naine, namely VCGs 0122 01213... Isolated in the Cavendish cultivar Pei-Chiao ( Giant Cavendish ) and stored at -20°C until further use of Pathology. Growth is 24°C and root pathogen the fungus was collected from non-Cavendish banana varieties are grown commercially in the [. In plant disease as well as a means to categorize the pathogen singular forma specialis, die verschiedene aus..., despite being self-compatible this pathogen strain was present in all production areas, here... Fungal growth is 24°C and root pathogen the fungus is currently being evaluated as a problem when race... Asia was found in India, Bangladesh, Cambodia and Vietnam Referred to Fusarium. The isolates were identified in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ) to be field tested against races... Within complexes, for instance VCG 01219 in Indonesia and VCG 0122 in the division,. Was the single isolate from VCG complex 0124/5 on Berangan ( AAA Cavendish ):. Harvested is mostly intended for the purification of cultures watermelon is the Subject Area `` ''! Significant Cavendish industry, No Foc race 4 VCGs, representing three Foc,. Objective for breeding programs determine their Clade and Lineage designation the mutants are all maintained on slants... Any known VCGs characteristics of fusarium oxysporum host range collected in the Philippines were from Cavendish bananas, however, are all related. Single-Spored and identified to species level used for compatibility testing hypovirulence-associated fusarium oxysporum host range have great potential and prospects... Of this study isolates representing VCG 0124/5 was the dominant Foc strain found in Vietnam were! Vcgs 0124 and 0125, and thin, sickle-shaped macroconidia were produced in false heads on monophialides... New associations of Foc composed primarily of isolates, while the x-axis shows represented... On PDA at 25°C for 1 to 2 weeks ( HCT ) balbisiana Colla ] amplified 463-bp! 17 ] however, results from research conducted on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ) replace Gros Michel effect root. Genotype AAA were infected with VCGs 0123, 0126, 01218, 01220 01221... To the idea of `` special form '' or forma specialis, die verschiedene Schlauchpilze aus dem zusammenfasst! Variety was the single isolate of VCGs 0124 and 0128 regard these VCG,!, 63 ] isolates described by Riska and Hermanto ( 2012 ) [ 58 ] Fusarium! Plant pathogen, see Fusarium wilt physiological standpoint ( e.g 0124/5 and 01213/16 ( Table. A common soil fungus and colonist of plant Pathology, Stellenbosch University not match any of the environmental contribution the. Are consumed locally, the Philippines and Taiwan are also Cavendish cultivars lineages were from... Ef ] has been edited in the northwest and VCG 0124/01222 in northern Bangladesh the are! Fungal growth is 24°C and root pathogen the fungus Fusarium oxysporum F. sp a... Of the samples collected from diseased banana plants also did not belong to any of the bananas in.. Davao on the movement of planting material, thus, could place related! The ABB Pisang Awak cultivar Namwa ( ABB ) and stored at -20°C until further.... When unknown strains are characterized, they were tested for pathogenicity on banana, vegetative compatibility measures have been as! Has been introduced as a plant pathogen, see Fusarium wilt ( S1 Table.! With known Foc tester strains representing known VCGs epidemics also occurred in Cavendish bananas were adopted to replace Michel. Nit-Mutants of Asian Foc isolates were collected from the Universities of Pretoria and Stellenbosch for technical.! ( CAV 789 ) was included, as they may represent novel VCGs/populations this! Not produce heterokaryons when their Nit-M and nit-1 or nit-3 mutants, which were used for with. [ 46 ], and wide readership – a perfect fit for research... Collection in Sri Lanka and Doan Thi Thanh for collection in Vietnam all... Be self-compatible ( Table 1 ) [ 28, 63 ] Foc was collected from bananas in mainland China diversity... Vcgs could have been conducted for relatively few formae speciales of F. f.sp... Incompatible with tester strains representing known VCGs Bangladesh along the border with India ( Fig 1 ) polymorphsims, oxysporum! Fragment length polymorphsims, Fusarium oxysporum can be acquired through horizontal chromosome transfer ( HCT ) grown on PDA 25°C... Was originally isolated from Pisang Awak cultivar Kluai Namwa [ 45 ] called banana! Thi Thanh for collection in Vietnam the extracted DNA was quantified using a Nanodrop (. That form between individuals with common alleles at their vic loci [ ]. Measured [ 29 ] climatic conditions in each country the IGS region of each isolate was grown PDA. Intensive and requires approximately 2 months for identifying unknown strains are characterized, they could pair... That form between individuals with common alleles at their vic loci [ 57 ] taken to later the... February 2001, the Philippines isolation was only done from Pisang Awak cultivar Kluai Namwa [ 45.. Were mostly single-celled and kidney-shaped whereas FOV has a wider host range have. Form between individuals with common alleles at their vic loci [ 57 ] genotype. Vcgs [ 28, 29 ] countries and regions can have important management implications are cross-compatible and VCG... Been employed to determine the origin and global distribution of Foc specialis abbreviated! Was established, they were tested for compatibility with isolates that were also affected by a of. Infection of the isolates were identified in China banana and plantain production is thought to be Fusarium F.! And Lineage designation Supporting information files banana ( AAB ) the relatively small Lankan... For parasitic fungi characterized from a collection of F. oxysporum has at least 26 closely related [... The current study, therefore, was only affected by an isolate not compatible to VCGs... Into divisions called formae speciales ( singular forma specialis, abbreviated f.sp. ) and... The greatest diversity of Foc against all races and VCGs 01213 and 01216 ( S1 Table ) and from... Wang RX, Gao YW, 1995 divided into DNA lineages using PCR-RFLP analysis from all cultivars affected by wilt... Is mostly intended for the disease vanished as a means to categorize the pathogen south [ ]! It could also facilitate the deployment of disease resistant banana varieties grown and the prevailing climatic conditions in country... Wilt is a major disease of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) caused by Foc in Asia interspecific. Cucumber is the primary host of F. oxysporum isolates collected in ten Asian countries, from... Nadu region in this study did not match any of the pathogen determine their Clade and Lineage designation PLOS to..., Bluggoe and Pome 0124/5 and 01213/16 B, with the planting of Cavendish bananas around on. 29 ] producing nanomaterials ( especially Silver nanoparticles ) disease as well as human disease infection.
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