46, 733–742. The Changjiang Water Resources Commission reported the water level had reached 146.97 metres with peak inflows of 53,000 cubic metres per second, the same rate as the 1998 floods. 52(3), 268–277 (in Chinese). Short Term Responses Long Term Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. [7] The final period of rainfall occurred in August, with an average of 150-200 mm of rainfall seen in most regions. Zhang, Z.: 1991, Present situation of Dongting Lake and new consideration about its control, J. Nanjing University, Special Issue on the Causes and Countermeasure of Natural Disaster, pp. Building and infrastructural remains polluted the basin for some months afterwards. 22(5), 697–709. The floods can be split into three general stages, beginning when one of the stronges… Indeed, after a strong El Niño in 1998, similar floods struck the Yangtze River Basin, causing $44 billion in damage and 3,656 deaths. Third, the construction of levees has caused flood levels to rise due to restricted flood discharge capacity. 84-93 (in Chinese). 30, 24–26 (in Chinese). Areas that were most threatened associated the Yangtze include the low-lying basins surrounding the Dongting and Poyang lakes, and surrounding provinces in Hubei and Hunan.[3]. China’s worst floods in recent years were in 1998, when more than 2,000 people died and almost 3 million homes were destroyed, mostly along the Yangtze. Rainstorms Leave Yangtze River Cities Flooded as Rescue Effort Begins — Radio Free Asia Press Room White, G. F.: 1974, Natural Hazards: Local, National, Global, Oxford University Press, Oxford. The event was considered the worst Northern China flood in 40 years. Afterwards, the government wasn’t able to organize enough relief efforts. Part of Springer Nature. 1). 3rd longest river in the world – 6380km. Lin, C. and Lu, J.: 1991, Studies on the anomaly of Plum Rain and flood disaster in the Yangtze River valley, J. Nanjing University, Special Issue on the Causes and Countermeasure of Natural Disaster, pp. In the summer of 1998, China experienced massive flooding of parts of the Yangtze River, resulting in 3,704 dead, 15 million homeless and $26 billion in … [5] Other sources report a total loss of 4150 people, and 180 million people were affected. An integrated approach isneeded to produce a balanced management plan that canmeet the financial needs of local people in thecatchment area as well as reduce flood risk to theindustries and urban residents in the middle basin ofthe Yangtze. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008119805106, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008119805106, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Extensive reclamation of the lakes andfluvial islands in the middle basin has considerablyreduced the floodwater storage and drainage capacityof these natural landscapes of the Yangtze Basin.Deforestation in the catchment area has induced soilerosion, resulting in a large amount of sedimentdeposited in reservoirs whose storage capacity is thusreduced. “It can only partially and temporarily intercept the upstream floods, and is powerless to help with floods caused by heavy rainfall in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River,” he said. The Communist … Lu, J. Y. and Luo, H. K.: 1999 Preliminary analysis on the relationship between the Yangtze and Dongting Lake, Yangtze River Superimposed image volume 22, pages165–184(2000)Cite this article. Rainy Weather Causes Major Floods In China Heavy ... Wednesday to open all 10 spillways for the first-time ever in an effort to control rising water on a reservoir along the Yangtze River. Consequently, the discharge capacity decreased to 60,000–68,000 m 3 /s, which is sufficient only for ordinary floods. This file footage compilation shows the flooding of China's Yangtze River in 1998. 1. Natural Hazards 22, 165–184 (2000). The flood caused a direct economic loss of more than 200 billion yuan. A Chinese island on the Yangtze River faces a repeat of the 1998 floods. Perry, A. H.: 1981 Environmental Hazards in the British Isles, George Allen & Unwin, London, 191 pp. This year's floods in China have officially caused some 1,000 deaths and forced over 5.5 million people to evacuate their homes. Among the most recent major flood events are those of 1870, 1931, 1954, 1998, and 2010. [6] Most areas saw double the normal amount of rainfall during the rainy season, with certain regions seeing rainfall levels as much as nearly three times the historical average. 62,500,000 acres were flooded between the beginning of June - September (about 3 months) Area flooded vs. In 1998, catastrophic floods occurred in the whole area of the Yangtze River basin. A basin wide severe flood occurred in the Yangtze River valley in 1998. Each year, monsoon rains and Himalayan snow melt combine to produce higher river levels. [7] Another 300-500 mm of rain was seen across several areas during this second phase, causing significant damage as it flowed into villages and towns. This is a research report concerning the Yangtze river flooding in 1998, which led to extreme impacts on its home country and great actions of the Chinese government. [4] Around 100,000 square kilometres (25,000,000 acres) were evacuated, and 13.3 million houses were damaged or destroyed. These images were acquired during the floods in China at the station of Ulan Bator (Mongolia). Therefore, stopping floods may be changed as flood control or flood protection. In 1998, catastrophic floods occurred in the whole area of the Yangtze River basin. Environmental Research Centre, Department of Geography, University of Durham, Durham, DH1 3LE, U.K, The State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062, P. R. China, You can also search for this author in [Image source/South China Morning Post YouTube video] The Yangtze runs from the west of China to the east. Original river The Cause: * 68.28 inches of rain The floods can be split into three general stages, beginning when one of the strongest subtropical highs in history arrived in the Yangtze River Basin during mid-June and lingered, providing sustained heavy rainfall for a period of roughly two weeks. Subscription will auto renew annually. Combined with above average rainfall since the previous winter, this pushed water levels to above cautionary levels. This paper examines the main causes ofthe 1998 flood on the Yangtze and addresses a numberof issues related to the exploitation of naturalresources and counter-measures to the flood hazard.The records show that both the amount of precipitationover the catchment and the floodwater discharge fromthe upper basin did not exceed the historical maximum,but water levels in the middle basin were recordedmuch higher than the historical maximum. In the summer of 1998, China suffered the worst floods in over 44 years. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. In the summer of 1998, China experienced severe flooding of the Yangtze River, the Nen River, the Songhua River and the Pearl River after torrential rains took place. The 1998 Flood on the Yangtze, China. Hosking, J. R. M. and Wallis, J. R.: 1997 Regional Frequency Analysis: An Approach Based on L-Moments, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 2007). However, judging from the rainstorm duration, intensity and impact range, the disaster in the Yangtze River Basin this year is weaker than the one in 1998. [7] After briefly shifting north, the same system eventually returned to the region in mid-July. Yangtze River floods, floods of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) in central and eastern China that have occurred periodically and often have caused considerable destruction of property and loss of life. Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. The peak of flood, volume of flow, and duration were all record-breaking. Rain water absorbed by forests and vegetation flows more slowly to rivers and streams, preventing flooding. Xu, G. Q.: 1992, Flood Prevention, Water Resources and Hydro-Electricity Press House, Beijing (in Chinese). This paper examines the main causes ofthe 1998 flood on the Yangtze and addresses a numberof issues related to the exploitation of naturalresources and counter-measures to the flood hazard.The records show that both the amount of precipitationover the catchment and the floodwater discharge fromthe upper basin did not exceed the historical maximum,but water levels in the middle … Filed under china , extreme weather , floods , yangtze river , … Floods annually, 1998 was the worst. Smith, K. and Ward, R.: 1998, Floods, Physical Processes and Human Impacts, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. 1998 flood survivors Severe rainfall was the main cause of the floods but man-induced factors included deforestation of erosion-subverting forests in the Yangtze river basin and other areas also contributed to the disaster. The flood was caused by unusually high precipitation between June and August (670 mm), due to a strong El Niño event. Most areas saw double the normal amount of rainfall during the rainy season, with certain regions seeing rainfall levels as much as nearly three times the historical average. Chen, X. and Zong, Y.: 1998, Coastal erosion along the Changjiang deltaic shoreline, China: history and prospective, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Sci. This image was acquired on 01 August 1998 over Huarong (200km south-west of Wuhan), and the Yangtze River. In this paper, I’m aiming to analyze the earth scientific and socio-economic aspects of the 1998 … The most recent major flood in 1998 causes 14 million homeless and $24 billion in economic losses (Yin et al. (ed. Further Reading However, judging from the rainstorm duration, intensity and impact range, the disaster in the Yangtze River Basin this year is weaker than the one in 1998. Yangtze is the longest river in China, and floods are the big danger in its middle and lower reaches. ): 1995, Regionalization of Hazards in China, China Science & Technology Press, Beijing (in Chinese). It was aimed at both generating power and reining in the ferocious Yangtze, the cause of many terrible floods in Chinese history. [6][7] It was also during this period that the dikes began to break, causing further death and widespread damage to property. Therefore, stopping floods may be changed as flood © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. It was aimed at both generating power and reining in the ferocious Yangtze, the cause of many terrible floods in Chinese history. The 1998 Yangtze River Flood By: Nick Hanson, Johnny Hoffmann, Gaven Bowman, Layne Symington Where is the Yangtze River? https://earth.esa.int/.../zaoP2lUloYKv/content/flood-yangtze-china-july-1998 76-83 (in Chinese). The 1998 China floods (1998年中国洪水) lasted from middle of June to the beginning of September 1998 in China at the Yangtze River[1] as well as the Nen River, Songhua River[2] and the Pearl River. Fang, J.: 1991, A pilot study on the impact of post-glacial sea-level rise on the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River, Acta Geographica Sinica The State Statistical Bureau of China: 1992, China Population Statistics Yearbook, China Statistics Press. Establishment of the Great Jinjiang levee caused silting up of the riverbed and valley in the mid-reaches of Yangtze. 1998 Yangtze River Floods in China Floods in China cause 40% of the total economic loss from natural calamities and are one of the most important and serious natural disasters in China. The image is superimposed and uses a semi-transparent layer which highlights the river in light blue. Background. [4] The floods resulted in 3,704 dead, 15 million homeless and $24 billion in economic loss. A basin wide severe flood occurred in the Yangtze River valley in 1998. The core study area is located in the most strikingly meandering and complex stream network section of the middle Yangtze River (Fig. Strengthening the flood defence to protectpeople living on the floodplain has raised the waterlevel during the flood. [7] Although the water had begun to subside at this point, this extra rainfall caused further damage to homes and farmland in the surrounding areas. It is the longest river in the country and is in the grip of floods Frequent flooding has claimed more than one million lives in the past 100 years. 36-141 (in Chinese). Widespread flooding in the Yangtze basin causes deaths as overflowing rivers drown streets. The main cause of the flood was due to above average rainfall in the region for several months before and during the summer of 1998. It is characterized high water level, large flood volume and long lasting. Perry, C. A.: 1994 Effects of Reservoirs on Flood Discharges in the Kansas and Missouri River Basins 1993, Circular 120-E, US Geological Survey, Denver. Managt Chen, X.: 1996 An integrated study of sediment discharge from the Changjiang River, China and the delta development since the mid-Holocene, J. Coastal Res. The 1998 flood disaster in China 1. The 1998 Yangtze River floods were a series of major floods that lasted from middle of June to the beginning of September 1998 along the Yangtze. 2007). Controlling Yangtze River Floods: A New Approach By Dr. Jamie Pittock and Dr. Ming Xu After nearly a millennium of efforts to control floods in the Yangtze River basin with dikes, polders and other hard engineering measures, the Chinese government adopted a radically different approach after the disastrous 1998 floods. [7] Although the system had weakened, rainfall during this period was more intense and localized. It follows a visit to China in 1999 by a Unep team to establish the causes of the 1998 floods. Valley is home to 400 million people. Humanactivities have greatly increased the risk of theflood hazard. During the catastrophic Yangtze floods of 1998, which killed 4,000 and ruined 7 million homes, heavy rain triggered floods in upstream areas as well. Causes of Yangtze Floods in 1998 1998 flood survivors Severe rainfall was the main cause of the floods but man-induced factors included deforestation of erosion-subverting forests in the Yangtze river basin and other areas also contributed to the disaster. Flood Event Yangtze 1998 Flood, China. The peak of flood, volume of flow, and duration were all record-breaking. - 82.196.1.164. It was soon discovered that the high water level and its long duration are not isolated phenomena, but representative of the two general tendencies of flood disasters in the middle reach of Yangtze (Table 1). The floods were reported to have killed 3,656 people, destroyed 5.7 million homes and damaged seven million more, and forced 14 million people to move to new areas. The State Statistical Bureau of China: 1995 Report of the Damage Caused by Disasters in China. 1. Still, the causes of disaster are similar: the subtropical high-pressure moved northward before falling southward and finally stabilizing, but the impact duration has not been as long as that in 1998. It is characterized high water level, large flood volume and long lasting. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Pielke, Jr. R. A.: 1996, Midwest Flood of 1993: Weather, Climate and Societal Impacts, Environmental & Societal Impacts Group, National Centre for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 USA. On July 2, the Yangtze River experienced its first flood peak of the year. Overall, floods this summer have left 219 people dead or missing — the central government doesn’t consistently separate the figures in official announcements — and destroyed 54,000 homes, according to Zhou. Following the 1998 floods, the government convinced 2.4 million people to leave the Yangtze River floodplains, restoring 1,000 square miles. Intensifying anthropogenic activity in the last century, including deforestation, dyking, and lake–coast reclamation etc. Wang, J. Zhu, C., Yu, S., and Lu, C.: 1997, The study of Holocene environmental archaeology and extreme flood disaster in the Three Gorges of the Changjiang River and Jianghan Plain, Acta Geographica Sinica Thus, this archetypal pattern tended to lead a flood event over the Yangtze River Basin which may cause very large economic losses and human causalities (e.g., the flood event in 1998 [5, 6]). 46(4), 427–435 (in Chinese). Tags: yangtze river… The most recent major flood in 1998 causes 14 million homeless and $24 billion in economic losses (Yin et al. The main cause of the flood was due to above average rainfall in the region for several months before and during the summer of 1998. Zhou, Z.: 1991, Synoptic characteristics of atmospheric circulation during abnormal Plum Rain period in 1991, J. Nanjing University, Special Issue on the Causes and Countermeasure of Natural Disaster, pp. 12(1), 26–37. Natural Hazards Multiple studies also suggest that global warming is likely increasing the intensity of the monsoon in Asia. Damage to the surrounding area also inlcuded many old trees and shrubbery, this not only destroyed habitats but also worsened the after-effects of the floods. Between the actual floods and the following famine and disease, up to 4 million people died, making it the deadliest natural disaster in recorded history. The flood caused a direct economic loss of more than 200 billion yuan. [6][7] Combined with above average rainfall since the previous winter, this pushed water levels to above cautionary levels. The Yangtze, at 6,300 km (3,900 miles), is Asia's longest river and the world's third longest. Lu, X. and Higgitt, D. L.: 1998, Recent changes of sediment yield in the upper Yangtze, China, Environ. [6][7] As much as 1000 mm of precipitation was seen in some locations. that results directly in riverbeds aggradation and shrinkage of lake water area in the middle Yangtze basin, are the key causes for recently human-induced !oods in the basin. PubMed Google Scholar, Zong, Y., Chen, X. Indeed, after a strong El Niño in 1998, similar floods struck the Yangtze River Basin, causing $44 billion in damage and 3,656 deaths. El Nino effect in 1998 made rain last an extra month. Multiple studies also suggest that global warming is likely increasing the intensity of the monsoon in Asia. China Statistics Press. The Yellow, Yangtze, and Huai Rivers of China flooded in 1931, inundating almost all of central China in the worst natural disaster in the nation’s history. [7], "The 1998 Yangtze Floods: The Use of Short-Term Forecasts In The Context of Seasonal to Interannual Water Resource Management", "Forest and Flood: Aftermath of the 1998 Yangtze River Flood", "The 1998 Yangtze Floods: The Use of Short-Term Forecasts in the Context of Seasonal to Interannual Water Resource Management", China: Yangtze River Flood (July-August 1998), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1998_China_floods&oldid=974055239, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 August 2020, at 20:48. This video explains the causes, impacts and response to the Yangtze floods of 1998. River Country Year Lives lost Cause 1 Yangtze River China 1931 2,500,000 - 3,700,000 River flood The floods were primarily caused by poor management of the rivers, which were overwhelmed by extreme weather in 1931. Filed under china , extreme weather , floods , yangtze river , … Physical Causes. [7] During this second period of rain, many surrounding lakes and rivers broke record high water levels and overflowed into the Yangtze River, causing a sudden sharp rise in water levels. 1998 THE YANGTZE RIVER FLOOD Introduction. 1998 Yangtze River Floods in China Floods in China cause 40% of the total economic loss from natural calamities and are one of the most important and serious natural disasters in China. Visit to China in 1999 by a Unep team to establish the causes of the 1998,... Final period of rainfall occurred in the whole area of the rivers which! 1870, 1931, 1954, 1998, catastrophic floods occurred in the summer 1998! Following the 1998 floods, the same system eventually returned to the east may be changed as flood control flood! ( Mongolia ) million people to leave the Yangtze River valley in the past 100 years yuan. Streams, preventing flooding River experienced its first flood peak of flood, volume of,... 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