Significant reduction in the emission of pollutants occurred, however, as a consequence of the rapid fall in industrial production in the early 1990s, following the abandonment of communism and the introduction of economic reforms. – bison – the biggest mammal in Poland and whole Europe. Having done a great deal to resolve environmental problems inherited from the past, Poland now aims at another level of environmental quality and at environmental convergence with other European countries. Voivodeship: Lower Silesian Voivodeship. Topographically, Poland is a diverse country; although most of the central terrain is flat, there is an abundance of lakes, rivers, hills, swamps, beaches, islands and forests elsewhere. environment, Poland lags behind most other OECD countries with respect to a number of environmental indicators. In the mountains the vegetation, like the climate, is determined by elevation. The major elements involved are oceanic air masses from the west, cold polar air from Scandinavia or Russia, and warmer, subtropical air from the south. The rest of the population consists of Eastern Orthodox (1,3%), Protestants (0,4%) and other Christian religions. Much higher levels of respiratory disease, abnormal pregnancy, and infant mortality have been reported in areas of environmental degradation. Ukrainians are scattered in various southwestern and northern districts. The Jewish community of over 3 million was almost completely wiped out – today Jewish population in Poland is estimated at ca. Warm, dry, subtropical-continental air often brings pleasant days in late summer and autumn. The number of combined non-Polish ethnic minorities range between 1-2 million (3%) and consist of ca. But Poland's economic performance could improve if the country addresses some of the remaining deficiencies in its road and rail infrastructure, business environment, rigid labor code, commercial court system, government red tape, and burdensome tax system. Poland, country of central Europe. Private consumption and fixed investment are seen expanding strongly, supported by fiscal relief measures. Now bounded by seven nations, Poland has waxed and waned over the centuries, buffeted by the forces of regional history. Some animals have always had special status in Poland. Poland is an almost mono-ethnic society with Poles making up around 97% of the country’s inhabitants. The biggest influence on climatic conditions have extreme phenomena which present increase in the number of occurrences, noticeable change the dynamic of the climate nature in Poland. The biggest ethnic minorities include approx. Glacial action in this region formed lakes and low hills in the otherwise flat terrain. Several areas of central Poland, where cement is produced and brown coal (lignite) is burned, also were contaminated by air pollution. Winter lasts from December through January until late February or early March. Białowieża Forest . The present population of Polish people living in Poland is estimated at slightly over 38 million. There is a serious intensification of weather phenomena, such as drought, hurricane-force winds, tornadoes and … In the north, Poland reaches the Baltic Sea with its beautiful sandy beaches and busy harbors. Population: 631,377. In winter, polar-continental fronts often dominate, bringing cold, frosty weather with temperatures far below zero an sometimes … In 2018 Poland’s GDP grew by 24% compared to 2012. The biggest number of Poles belong to the Catholic Church – ca. Approximately 87% are Roman Catholics. The most valuable primeval areas unique on a European scale are under legal protection. Bio-variety of Polish fauna and flora is fascinating. To the south of central lowlands the terrain rises slowly and is again more hilly and diverse, dominated by highlands. There are small numbers of Slovaks, Czechs, and Armenians. After 1989, there was a reduction of the state-owned sector balanced by the development of the private. In addition, minority ethnic identity was not cultivated publicly until after the collapse of communism in 1989. Virtually all of Poland’s people claim Polish nationality, with Polish as their native tongue. The climate is milder along the northern coast, overlooking the Baltic Sea, while it becomes progressively more continental going to the south, where the distance from the sea is greater. In the southeast, Ukrainian settlements predominated in the regions east of Chełm and in the Carpathian Mountains east of Nowy Sącz. A wild and primeval land that straddles the border between Poland and Belarus in the country’s extreme east, Białowieża Forest is considered one of the last vestiges of virgin woodland in Europe. The air had various dust and chemicals, such as lead, carbon dioxide, ammonia, fluoride, nitrogen compounds, formaldehyde, and cadmium. More than one-fourth of the country is wooded, with the majority set aside as public property. The overall climate of Poland has a transitional—and highly variable—character between maritime and continental types. Generally, in north and west part of the country the climate is predominantly maritime, with gentle, humid winters and cool, rainy summers, while the eastern and southern part of Poland has distinctly continental climate with harsh winters and hotter, drier summers. The country spreads between natural sand beaches of the Baltic Sea in the north, through clear lakes, rivers and extensive well-preserved forests, tranquility of central lowlands to vast uplands and mountain peaks in the south. The killing of a large section of the Polish intelligentsia by the Nazis and the Communists during and after World War II greatly reduced the rigid social stratification in the country. In the heavily industrialized Katowice region of Poland, the people suffer 15 percent more circulatory disease, 30 percent more tumors, and … Poland lies in the zone of mixed forests, but in the southeast a fragment of the forest-steppe vegetation zone intrudes. Poland is one of the mainstays for this large bird of prey. Generally, the Polish seasons are clearly differentiated. Tatra Mountains (part of Carpathians) have Alpine character and here the highest Polish peak is found – Mount Rysy, 2499 m (8200 feet) above sea level. In winter, snow makes up about half the total precipitation in the plains and almost all of it in the mountains. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! Across central Poland a vast region of plains extends – the so called Polish Plain, used mainly for agriculture. Poles also reside in many other countries on all continents. The tall evergreen trees, the dark ground once covered with thousands of landmines, the desolate environment, the steel, and concrete debris; all strange to me, yet somewhat familiar. I am exploring the place I’ve seen through images and movies like Valkyrie. The major elements involved are oceanic air masses from the west, cold polar air from Scandinavia or Russia, and warmer, subtropical air from the south. During this time, large-scale migration of the rural population to Polish cities was observed. The country was ranked 12th in the world for high carbon dioxide levels. ... "At the center of economic growth and increasing political influence will be Poland," the report says. It now resides in primeval forests of Bialowieza and has become a symbol of the Bialowieza National Park. The Polish ethnographic area stretched eastward: in Lithuania, Belarus, and western Ukraine, all of which had a mixed population, Poles predominated not only in the cities but also in numerous rural districts. Poland According to the Polish Academy of Sciences, "a third of the nation’s 38 million people live in areas of ecological disaster." The annual average precipitation is about 24 inches (610 mm), but in the mountains the figure approaches 31 to 47 inches (787 to 1,194 mm), dropping to about 18 inches (457 mm) in the central lowlands. Throughout the decade the government implemented antipollution policies, such as closing the most damaging industrial plants. A series of barometric depressions moves eastward along the polar front year-round, dividing the subtropical from the colder air and bringing to Poland, as to other parts of northern Europe, cloudy, wet days. The country’s major rivers remain badly polluted by industrial and urban effluents, and Poland’s cities and larger towns are major sources of pollution. Brown bears live in the Carpathian Mountains. Today Poland as a part of European Union is obligated to copy with EU standards, which restricted the influence of industry on the environment. Small lakes dot the entire northern half of Poland, however their biggest concentration is in the northeastern region known as Masurian Lake District. Fir and beech woods give way to the spruce of the upper woods, which in turn fade into subalpine, alpine, and snow-line vegetation. Poland Economic Growth After contracting notably this year on the hit from coronavirus containment measures, the economy is projected to rebound in 2021. Although most of Poland’s territory is lowland, the country has amazing and versatile natural environment. By the late 20th century, the Polish Academy of Sciences had described Poland as one of the most polluted countries in the world. Unemployment levels remain low, with the average annual rate at 3.9% (an all-time low in the post-1989 period), significantly below the EU28 average (6.8%). The European bison, or wisent, which once roamed widely across the continent but became extinct in the wild following World War I, once again roams the great Białowieża (Belarusian: Belovezhskaya) Forest in national parks on both sides of the Polish-Belarusian border, having been reintroduced by using zoo-bred animals. Deer and wild pigs roam the woods; elk inhabit the coniferous forests of the northeast; and steppe rodents, such as the brindled gopher, live in the south. This climatic calendar is more complicated, though, as there are plenty of anomalies which make another distinctive feature of Poland’s climate. There was a huge degradation of environment and pollution. Nature protection in Poland has long tradition. Generally, in north and west part of the country the climate is predominantly maritime, with gentle, humid winters and cool, rainy summers, while the eastern and southern part of Poland has distinctly continental climate with harsh winters and hotter, drier summers. Now, in the 21st century, most communities of non-Poles are dispersed but reside in the border provinces, primarily in the south. Holarctic elements (i.e., those pertaining to the temperate belt of the Northern Hemisphere) are dominant among the seed plants. Geography of Poland Wrocław. Polish mountains offer wonderful hiking and skiing opportunities. Climate. Poland’s animal life belongs to the European–West Siberian zoogeographic province, itself part of the Palearctic subregion, and is closely linked with the vegetation cover. It can be observed in the wild in central, north-western and eastern parts of the country. The vegetation of Poland that has developed since the last Ice Age consists of some 2,250 species of seed plants, 630 mosses, 200 liverworts, 1,200 lichens, and 1,500 fungi. Rysy in the High Tatras; it stands at 2,499 m (8,199 ft) in elevation. Worldwide there are additional 15-20 million Poles and people of Polish origin living abroad. As a consequence, the population of Poland became one of the most ethnically homogeneous in the world. Some 19 million people rely on coal for heat in winter. 90% of Polish society. The area which is occupied by more than 2000 lakes and is densely wooded is a favorite destination for sailing and canoeing. Moreover, there are 1354 nature reserves, 121 landscape parks and 1098 territories of Nature 2000 preservation system. There is a large population of white storks in Poland; they nest here in summer and migrate to Africa for winter. Thanks to such attitude there are still places hardly touched by civilization, like Bialowieza Primeval Forest, endless Biebrza marshes or desolate Bieszczady Mountains. There are 23 national parks in Poland, which cover an area of 3,200 sq km (1,235 sq miles) – approximately 1% of the country’s area. Long Reads. The climate in Poland is continental, with very cold winters, often below freezing (0 °C or 32 °F), and warm summers. Due to significant differences that occur from day to day and more increasingly from year to year, it is extremely difficult to predict what the weather is going to be like at any given point in time. Poland's measured highest-point is Mt. There are around 75,000 species of plants, 39,000 micro-organisms and fungi, around 2750 vascular plant species and sub-species and around 33,000-45,000 of animal species living in numerous co-existing ecosystems. Polands climate can be described as a temperate climate with relatively cold winters and warm summers, which is greatly influenced by oceanic air currents from the west, cold polar air from Scandinavia and Russia, as well as warmer, sub-tropical air from the south. Six seasons may be clearly distinguished: a snowy winter of one to three months; an early spring of one or two months, with alternating wintry and springlike conditions; a predominantly sunny spring; a warm summer with plenty of rain and sunshine; a sunny, warm autumn; and a foggy, humid period signifying the approach of winter. Like elsewhere in Poland, most of the homes in the villages below Zar Mountain are still heated by coal. NOW 50% OFF! Situated in the southeast are communities of Roma (Gypsy), in Małopolskie województwo (province), and Ruthenians, in Podkarpackie province. The war, however, killed vast numbers of people, precipitated massive migrations, and radically altered borders. January is the coldest month of the year. The problems of environmental degradation were not officially recognized until the early 1970s and were not addressed until the Solidarity movement began agitating in the early 1980s. Today ethnic situation of Poland is very different from what it was before the World War II. Its northern frontier constitutes the Baltic Sea. During the 90s, environmental issues in Poland involved air, land, and water pollution. The traditional provinces of Silesia and Pomerania were home to a significant minority of Germans. Poland. Nature Among the most iconic ones are: – eagle – the white-tailed eagle has been a symbol of Polish nation since the origin of Polish state. 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